Some enterococci of food origin produce bacteriocins that exert anti-Listeria activity. Enterococci are used as probiotics to improve the microbial balance of the. Enterococci can cause food intoxication through production of biogenic amines and can be a reservoir for .. Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety. C. M. A. P. Franz, W. H. Holzapfel and M. E. Stiles, “Enterococci at the Crossroads of Food Safety” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 47, No.

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Molecular screening of Enterococcus virulence determinants and potential for genetic exchange between food and medical isolates.

There is strong epidemiological evidence of a link between the use of antibiotics in human medicine and animal husbandry and the emergence, spreading and persistence of resistant strains in animal products [ 4647 thf. Phenotypic identification of the genus Enterococcus and differentiation of phylogenetically distinct enterococcal species and species groups. The isolation of enterococci from natural milk starter cultures, which are still widely used for many Italian soft cheeses made with raw or pasteurised milk, can be explained by their thermal resistance.

Heterogeneity of plant-associated streptococci as characterized by phenotypic features and restriction analysis of PCR-amplified 16S rDNA. However, the antibiotic resistance alone cannot crossroaads the virulence of these bacteria in the absence of pathogenicity factors. Virulence of enterococci is not well understood but adhesins, haemolysin, hyaluronidase, aggregation substance and gelatinase are putative virulence factors.

Modern classification techniques resulted in the transfer of some members of the genus Streptococcus, notably some of the Lancefield’s group D streptococci, to the new genus Enterococcus. In this review, the following topics will be covered: Although nosocomial acquisition and subsequent colonisation of VRE has been emphasised among hospitalised persons, colonisation appears to occur frequently in persons not associated with the health care setting [ 52—55 ].


Characterisation of the human neutrophil response to sex pheromones from Streptococcus faecalis.

Skip to search form Skip to main content. The finding of non human Croossroads suggests the presence of community and animal reservoirs for these bacteria, where they have been selected through the use of avoparcin as a feed additive.

Enterococci have traditionally been regarded as low-grade pathogens. Recent molecular screenings of Enterococcus virulence determinants indicated that medical E. Enterococci occur in a variety of cheeses, especially artisanal cheeses produced in southern Europe from raw or pasteurised milk, and in natural milk starters.

This is in part explained by the resistance of some of these crossroada to most antibiotics that are currently in use.

Enterococci at the crossroads of food safety?

Enterococci isolated from dairy products: In this mechanism, the transport of these resistances via the food chain to humans appears most probable. These long-term policies should be based on international prospective monitoring systems for the surveillance in humans, animals, carcasses and foods. Clearly, there is no consensus on the acceptance of their presence in foodstuffs and their role as primary pathogens is still a question mark. It is also difficult to prove that animal, environmental and human strains are identical by means of molecular typing.

Epidemiology of resistance to antibiotics. In previous studies on European cheeses, enterococci mainly belonging to E.

More recently, other species of enterococci have been proposed on the basis of chemotaxonomic studies and phylogenetic evidence provided by 16S rDNA sequencing [ 78 ].

Enterococci from foods | FEMS Microbiology Reviews | Oxford Academic

Epidemiological studies of farms that use avoparcin have shown a significant association with the presence of VRE in animal stools. Two distinct foo of transferable vancomycin-resistant phenotypes have been described in enterococci: On the contrary, enterococci have important implications in the dairy industry.

Biochemical properties of enterococci relevant to their technological performance.


There is evidence that enterococci could find potential application in the processing of some fermented dairy products [ fhe75 ]. Does the use in animals of antimicrobial agents, including glycopeptide antibiotics, influence the efficacy of antimicrobial therapy in humans.

Once VRE contaminate foodstuffs, food-borne resistant strains may cause human colonisation through the food chain. Genetic structure of the Enterococcus faecalis plasmid pAD1-encoded cytolytic toxin system and its relationship to lantibiotic determinants.

To this regard, both E.

Further studies of community transmission are also needed. Molecular identification and diversity of enterococci isolated from Slovak Bryndza cheese.

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Transconjugation in which starter enterococci acquire virulence determinants from medical enterococci was recently demonstrated [21]. However, this measure should be complemented by a more prudent use kf antibiotics in human medicine. The increasing prevalence of strains resistant to ampicillin, aminoglycosides and glycopeptides and the acquisition of resistance to the few antibiotics available for treatment such as vancomycin pose serious difficulties in clinical therapy. Enterococci resistant to one or more antibiotics including bacitracin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, penicillin, rifampicin, streptomycin and tetracycline were isolated from minced meat, raw meat sausages, ham and tenderloin beef [ 3642 ].

In the case of VRE, the croxsroads threat is the crossroada to transfer their resistance genes to more pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria, which could produce truly frightening pathogens. High level VRE strains, especially belonging to E.

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from artisanal Travnik young cheeses, sweet creams and sweet kajmaks over four seasons. Numerous enterococcal isolates, especially from an environmental source, often remain unidentified when their identification is based on phenotypic traits alone.